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Kuri Manda ya II P. Kagame yageze ku ntego zo guteza imbere Ubuhinzi n’Ubworozi ?
Publish Date: jeudi 1er juin 2017
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Muri Manda ya kabiri, Perezida Paul Kagame hari ibyo yemereye Abanyarwanda ko azabagezaho mu myaka irindwi, bikubiye mu cyiswe “Gahunda ya Guverinoma y’imyaka irindwi”.

Mu gihe habura igihe gito ngo manda ya kabiri irangire, dukomeje kubagezaho inkuru zigaragaza ibyagezweho n’ibitaragezweho mubyo yemereye abaturage, dushingiye ku bipimo bihari.

Uyu munsi turareba ku Nkingi ya gatatu ‘UBUKUNGU

Muri iyi nkingi, Guverinoma yihaye intego yo kwihutisha iterambere ry’ubukungu mu buryo burambye, kongera umusaruro, ibipimo ngenderwaho ngengabukungu bikiyongera, u Rwanda rukava mu kiciro cy’abakene rukazareka gusindagizwa.

Perezida Kagame ageza ijambo kubitabiriye umuhango w’irahira rye kuri iyi manda ya kabiri

Kugira ngo iyi ntego y’Iterambere ry’ubukungu izagerwaho, Guverinoma yihaye gahunda cyangwa Porogaramu zikubiyemo imirongo migari n’ibipimo byo kwesa.
Porogaramu ya mbere igaruka ku iterambere ry’UBUHINZI N’UBWOROZI
Muri iyi Porogaramu, Guverinoma yiyemeje gukomeza kwita ku mirimo y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi bwa kijyambere, ku buryo abahinzi n’aborozi babugira umwuga ubatunze kandi uteza imbere Igihugu muri rusange.

Iti “Umusaruro uziyongera mu bwinshi no mu bwiza, wongererwe agaciro, uhunikwe kandi ushakirwe isoko bityo haboneke indi mirimo itari iy’ubuhinzi iteza imbere Igihugu.”

Ingingo ya mbere kuri iyi Porogaramu ; Guverinoma ivuga ko izashyira ingufu mu kunoza ubuhinzi hakoreshwa guhuza ubutaka, kuburinda isuri, gukoresha imbuto z’indobanure n’inyongeramusaruro zikwiye, guhingisha imashini no kuhira imyaka.

Muri uyu murongo, Guverinoma yashyizeho gahunda nyinshi zigamije kunoza ubuhinzi n’ubworozi n’ubwo zitakemuye bya burundu ibibazo biri muri uru rwego kuko rukirimo abahinzi n’aboro batabigize umwuga cyane. Ibikorwa byo kuhira, gukoresha inyongeramusaruro, gukoresha imashini n’ibindi by’abahinzi b’umwuha usanga biri muri Koperative n’abahinzi b’umwuga bakiri bacye cyane.

Imibare y’ikigo mpuzamahanga cy’ubuhinzi ‘FAO’ kivuga mu Rwanda hari ubutaka buhingwaho bugera kuri Hegitari 1 856 770 (2012), naho Ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibaruririshamibare cyo kikavuga ko ingo 2 493 000 zingana na 87.4% by’ingo zo mu Rwanda ziri mu buhinzi mu buryo butandukanye.

Ubushakashatsi ku buhinzi bw’Ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare “Seasonal Agricultural Survey 2016” bugaragaza ko mu gihembwe cy’ihinga A na B kuhira imyaka byakozwe ku gipimo kiri hagati ya 2.4% na 4.1%, naho mu gihembwe cy’ihinga C bikorwa ku gipimo cya 29.2%. Ku bahinzi banini ariko ko mu gihembwe A na B buhiye ku buso buri hagati ya 17% na 35%.

Naho, ubutaka burinzwe isuri bwo bwari hagati ya 73.2% na 72.1% mu gihembwe cy’ihinga A na B, mu gihe muri C byari kuri 78.4%.

Mu gihe Ubushakashatsi bwa kane ku mibereho y’ingo (EICV4) bwamuritswe mu 2015 ari nabwo buheruka igaragaza ko byibura byibura 85% by’ingo zikora ubuhinzi zifite byibura ubutaka burinzwe isuri, 13% bakaba bafite byibura ubutaka bumwe buhira, mu gihe abakoresha imiti, inyongeramusaruro n’ifumbire mu buhinzi ari 41% bavuye kuri 33% mu ibarura ryaribanjirije rya mbere ya 2011.

Ingingo ya kabiri ; Igaruka ku gukomeza gushishikariza abaturage guhinga ibihingwa bibafitiye akamaro kurusha ibindi bitewe n’akarere n’imiterere y’ubutaka bahingaho (comparative advantage).

EICV4 igaragaza ko byibura 29% by’ingo zikora ubuhinzi zongereye igihingwa kimwe kubyo zari zisanzwe zihinga kubera Politike y’igihingwa kimwe mu karere, naho 24% bagira byibura kimwe mu bihingwa bahingaga kubera iyi Politiki.

Ubu bushakashatsi ku mibereho y’ingo buheruka bugaragaza ko ingo zikora ubuhinzi zihinga cyane ibishyimbo (89.5%), bigakurikirwa n’ibigori (80.9%), Ibijumba (73.3%), ibirayi (61.6%), ibitoki bitekwa (61.0%), icyayi kikaza inyuma y’ibihungwa byabaruwe na 1.2%.

Gusa muri rusange igihingwa gihingwa cyane kurusha ibindi kigenda gihinduka bitewe n’igihembwe cy’ihinga. Nk’umwaka ushize wa 2016, urutoki nirwo rwiganje mu bihembwe bibiri cya mbere (A=23.2% na B=23.6%), ariko bigeze mu gihembwe cy’ihinga cya gatatu (C) ibirayi biba aribyo byiganza kuko byahinzwe kuri 28.7% by’ubutaka buhinzeho, nk’uko bigaragara mu bushakashatsi ku buhinzi “Seasonal Agricultural Survey 2016”.

Ingingo ya gatatu ; Igaruka ku guteza imbere ubushakashatsi ku mbuto no gushyiraho ahatuburirwa imbuto nziza no gusakaza ibyavuye muri ubwo bushakashatsi bikagera ku rwego rw’Umuhinzi ku buryo gukoresha imbuto nziza z’indobanure biva kuri 40% bikagera ku 100% ;

Ubushakashatsi ku buhinzi bw’Ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare “Seasonal Agricaltural Survey 2016” bwo bugaragaza ko abakoresha imbuto gakondo basanganywe bari hagati ya 81% na 90% mu bihembwe byose by’ihinga bya 2016.
Abahinzi bakoresheje imbuto irobanuye iba yarakomotse ku bushakashatsi bari hagati ya 10% na 19% mu bihembwe byose by’ihinga bya 2016.

Minisiteri y’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi ivuga ko mu 2010/11 abakoreshaga imbuto y’indobanure bari 18.8%, mu 2014-15 na 2015-2016 baba 19.5%, naho mu
By’umwihariko mu mwaka ushize, abahinzi banini bakoresheje imbuto gakondo (traditional seeds) bari hagati ya 50% na 70%, abakoresha imbuto ikomoka ku bushakashatsi bakaba hagati ya 30% na 50%. Abakoresheje ifumbire y’imborera bari hagati ya 65% na 76%, naho abakoresheje ifumbire mvaruganda bakaba hagati ya 51% na 62%.

Leta ishora amafaranga asaga Miliyari y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda mu bushakashatsi mu buhinzi bukiri hasi, dore ko abahinzi bakinubira kutabona imbuto nziza ijyanye n’igihe, ibasha guhangana n’indwara n’imihindagurikire y’ikirere.

Perezida wa Repubulika ubwe mu mwaka ushize wa 2016 yanenze urwego rw’ubushakashatsi mu buhinzi ubwo yari yasuye Akarere ka Gakenke. Ndetse n’Umugenzuzi mukuru w’imari ya Leta aherutse kugaragaza ibibazo by’imbuto nziza ziborera mu bubiko bwa Minisiteri y’ubuhinzi, izindi zikaribwa.

Ingingo ya kane ; Igaruka ku kwita kuri gahunda yo guhuza ubutaka, bityo ubutaka buhujwe bukava kuri 18% bugere nibura kuri 70% ;

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare cy’u Rwanda igaragaza ko mu 2011, Ingo zikora ubuhinzi zahuje ubutaka zari ku kigero cya 22.4%, ndetse zirazamuka zigera kuri 29.6% mu 2014 (EICV4).

MINAGRI yo ivuga ko ubutaka buhuje bwavuye kuri Hegitari 502,916 mu 2012/13, zigera kuri Hegitari 727,117.5 mu 2014-15, na Hegitari 829 106 mu 2015-2016.

Iyi Politike yo guhuza ubutaka no guhinga igihingwa kimwe ariko isa n’itarageze ku ntego kuko ahenshi Leta itakomeje kuyishyiramo imbaraga nk’uko byari bimeze bigitangira, ahubwo itangira gushyira imbaraga ku bahinzi banini n’amakoperative y’ubuhinzi, bijyanye n’ikiswe abahinzi b’ikitegererezo abandi bahinzi bagomba kureberaho guhinga bya kijyambere.

Ingingo ya gatanu ; Ivuga ko kuhira imyaka mu bishanga n’imisozi bizava kuri Ha 13 000 bigere nibura kuri Ha 100 000.

Muri Werurwe 2017, Fulgence Nsengiyumva, Umunyamabanga wa Leta muri MINAGRI mu Rwanda yavuze ko ubu Hegitari zuhirwa zigera ku 47 000 gusa, n’ubwo ngo bafite intego ko uyu mwaka urangira zibaye Hegitari 60 000, ndetse zikazagera kuri Hegitari 100 000 mu mwaka utaha wa 2018.

Ingingo ya gatandatu ; Ivuga ko ifumbire mvaruganda izava kuri 14kg/ha igere nibura kuri 45kg/ha, ikoreshwe ku butaka buhingwa cyane cyane ku materasi y’indinganire
Ubushakashatsi ‘Seasonal Agricultural Survey 2016’ bugaragaza ko mu bihembwe bitatu byose by’ihinga mu 2016 kandi abakoresheje ifumbire y’imborera bari hagati ya 50% na 70%. Naho abakoresheje ifumbire mvaruganda bakaba bari hagati ya 18% na 22% mu gihembwe A na B, na 46% mu gihembwe cy’ihinga C.

MINAGRI yo ivuga ko mu 2010/11 abahinzi bakoresheje ifumbi mu buhinzi yaba iy’imborera cyangwa imvaruganda bagera kuri 33.3%, mu 2014-15 baba 41.2%, naho mu 2015-2016 baba 36.4%.

Ingingo ya karindwi ; Igaruka ku kongera nibura ku kigero cya 10% buri mwaka ku bwinshi no mu bwiza umusaruro w’ibihingwa bisanzwe byoherezwa hanze y’Igihugu (kawa, icyayi, ibireti). Ibindi bihingwa byoherezwa mu mahanga bikiyongeraho nibura 10% buri mwaka.

Umusaruro w’ibihingwa u Rwanda rwohereza mu mahanga muri rusange aho kwiyongera byasubiye inyuma, ingano y’Ikawa yoherezwa mu mahanga yavuye kuri Megatonne 21 199 mu 2012/13, mu kwaka ushize zari kuri Megatonne 19 560.
Ingano y’icyayi yoherezwa mu mahanga yavuye kuri Megatonne 23,629 mu 2012/13, ugera kuri Megatonne 24,982 mu 2015/16. Ibireti byoherezwa hanze byavuye kuri Megatonne 28.12 mu 2012/13, bigera kuri Megatonne 22 mu 2015/16. Naho, Ingano y’indabo zoherezwa mu mahanga yavuye kuri Megatonne 27,822 ugera kuri Megatonne 20,932 mu 2015/16 (Imibare ya NAEB/MINAGRI).

Ibi ahanini byatewe n’uko muri iyi myaka micye ishize ibi bihingwa byoherezwa mu mahanga byahuye n’imbogamizi y’ibiciro ku masoko byari byaraguye cyane.
Ingingo ya munani ; Igaruka ku kongera umubare w’abakozi bakurikirana ibikorwa by’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi kugira ngo begere abaturage, kandi ibi bikajyana no kunoza imikorere yabo.

Ingingo ya cyenda ; Igaruka ku gushyiraho uburyo bunoze bwo guhuza abejeje imyaka n’abaguzi (post harvest action) hanozwa uburyo bwo guhahirana mu gihugu hagati no mu mahanga hashyirwaho amakusanyirizo n’amaguriro mu Turere twose.

Binyuze mu nama zihuza abahinzi, Koperative z’abahinzi, abaguzi n’abacuruzi b’imyaka ndetse n’inzego za Leta zifite aho zihuriye n’ubuhinzi, abo bose barahura bakaganira ku mikoranire, ndetse by’umwihariko bakumvikana ku biciro n’ubwo hakirimo icyuho mu guhuza igiciro kigurwa imyaka ku muhinzi n’icyo imyaka icuruzwaho ku isoko.

Ingingo ya Ingingo ya 10 ; Igaruka ku gushishikariza abahinzi n’aborozi gukorera mu Makoperative akomeye, akora neza kandi atanga inyungu ku bayagize no ku gihugu muri rusange bakagera nibura kuri 70%.

Aborozi byo byarashobotse hafi ya bose bari mu Makoperative kuko amakaragiro akorana n’aborozi bari mu ma Koperative, gusa ku bahinzi bo biracyari hasi.
Ingingo ya 11 ; Ivuga ku gushyira imbaraga mu gukumira no kuvura indwara zifata ibihingwa n’amatungo.

Nubwo ba Agronome n’Abaveterineri begerejwe abaturage kuvura indwara z’amatungo n’izimyaka biracyagoye kubera ubushobozi bw’abahinzi n’aborozi, dore ko usanga binubira ko imiti ihenda.

By’umwihariko mu buhinzi, indwara ya Kirabiranya irimo kurimbura urutoki mu Ntara y’Iburasirazuba n’Amajyepfo. Indwara y’imyumbati yasubije inyuma cyane ubuhinzi bw’imyumbati cyane cyane mu Ntara y’Amajyepfo ku gicumbi cyabwo.

Ndetse no muri iki gihembwe cy’ihinga B cy’umwaka wa 2016/17, ibigori byibasiwe n’indwara ya ‘Nkongwa’ yibasiye hafi 16% by’ubutaka buhinzeho ibigori, gusa Ingabo z’u Rwanda zatanze umusanzu mu kuyihashya.

Ingingo ya 12 ; Ivuga ku gushinga Banki y’iterambere ry’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi, hakanozwa uburyo bwo gutanga inguzanyo ; Inguzanyo mu buhinzi n’ubworozi zizava kuri 4% zikagera kuri 18% y’inguzanyo zitangwa mu gihugu.

Iyi banki n’ubwo itabashije kujyaho, inguzanyo zitangwa mu rwego rw’ubuhinzi n’ubworozi zarazamutse zigera ku 10.6% mu 2012, na 11.5% mu 2016, nk’uko Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu (BNR) ibitangaza mu kitwa Impamvu intego zo kuzamura inguzanyo mu buhinzi n’ubworozi ishobora kutagerwaho neza, ni ubwumvikane hagati y’abahinzi benshi batarabigira umwuga n’Amabanki yo aguriza umuntu ari uko yabanje kubara niba azunguka akabasha kwishyura, abahinzi rero kuko abenshi bakirambirije ku kirere birabagora kubona inguzanyo.

Ingingo ya 13 ; Igaruka ku gukomeza gahunda zo kuvugurura ubworozi bw’amatungo hagamijwe kongera umusaruro w’ibiyakomokaho, kuwutunganya, kuwumenyakanisha no kuwubonera amasoko mu gihugu no hanze yacyo.

Ingingo ya 14 ; Ivuga ku gukomeza gushyira ingufu muri gahunda ya GIRINKA. Inka zizatangwa zizava kuri 116,261 zigere 350,000 hanozwe gahunda n’uburyo bwo kuzihererekanya/kuziturira kugira ngo zigere ku miryango yose izikeneye bityo zifashe kuzamura ubukungu n’imibereho myiza y’Abanyarwanda.

Iyi ntego yo nubwo itaragerwaho ariko irashoboka, gusa kugera mu mpera z’umwaka ushize wa 2016 MINAGRI ivuga hari hamaze gutangwa inga 236 932, zivuye ku 175 900 mu 2012/13.

Ingingo ya 15 ; Igaruka ku guteza imbere gahunda yo guhunika neza umusaruro mu bigega by’Igihugu, umusaruro uhunitse mu bigega by’Igihugu ukava kuri toni 42.000 ukagera kuri toni 200.000, buri gihembwe ibigega bigomba kuba birimo byibuze toni 100,000. Amakoperative y’abahinzi n’ingo z’abaturage bagahunika ibishobora gutunga abantu mu mezi nibura atatu.

MINAGRI ivuga ko iyi ntego yagezweho ku buryo mu bihe by’isarura banayirenze. Ubu ngo hari ububiko mu bigega bushobora gutunga Ingo 12 000 mu mezi ari hagati y’atatu n’ane.

Ingingo ya 16 ; Ivuga ku gushyiraho gahunda ihamye yo guteza imbere uburobyi n’ubworozi bw’amatungo magufi no kongera umusaruro w’ibiyakomokaho (inyama, amata, amagi, impu, amafi ).

Imibare ya MINAGRI igaragaza ko umusaruro w’impu n’ubwoya, uw’amagi, ubuki, amafi, inyama n’amata wazamutse cyane nubwo ingo ziri mu bworozi bw’amatungo n’amafi zavuye kuri 68% by’ingo zose mu 2010/11, zikagera kuri 65% mu 2016.
Ingingo ya 16 ; Ivuga ku gukomeza gukangurira aborozi no kubafasha mu bikorwa byo guhunika/kubika amazi n’ubwatsi bw’amatungo.

Iyi ntego ntiragerwaho neza, ariko Guverinoma ikomeje kubaka Amadamu hafi y’aborozi cyane cyane mu ntara y’iburasirazuba, gusa aborozi cyane cyane abo baracyavuga ko bidahagije ndetse ngo mu gihe cy’izuba ryinshi usanga inyinshi muri izo Damu nta mazi zifite. Ikibazo cyo kubika ubwatsi cyo kiracyari ingorabahizi.

Ingingo ya 17 ; igira iti “Ibi byose bikazatuma bishoboka kugira ngo kwihaza mu biribwa bibe ihame, inzara icike burundu mu gihugu hose, buri muturarwanda agire ibyo kurya bihagije kandi bifite intungamubiri za ngombwa kandi asagurire isoko.”
Mu gihembwe cya kabiri cy’uyu mwaka wa 2017, urwego rw’ubuhinzi rwazamutseho 3%, ndetse rutanga umusanzu wa 33% mu musaruro mbumbe w’igihugu nk’uko byatangajwe n ;ikigo cy’igihugu cy’ibarurishamibare.

Amapfa y’umwaka ushize kandi yagize ingaruka ku bipimo byo kwihaza mu biribwa, aho imibare ya MINAGRI igaragaza ko ingo zifatwa nk’izihagije mu biribwa (households that are considered food secure) zavuye kuri 80% mu 2014-15, zikagera kuri 74% mu 2015-2016.

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